Qatar is not an electoral democracy. The head of state is the emir, whose family holds a monopoly on political power. The emir appoints a prime minister and cabinet. The constitution states that the emir appoints an heir after consulting with the ruling family and other notables. Voters elect local government representatives with limited powers over municipal services; these representatives report to the appointed minister of municipal affairs and agriculture. Under the constitution, which was ratified by public referendum in 2003 and promulgated by the emir in 2004, elections are to be held for 30 of the 45 seats in a new Consultative Council; the emir has the power to appoint the other 15 members. Although new elections were scheduled for 2010, Emir Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani extended the Council’s current session until 2013, effectively postponing elections for three more years. The existing 35-member Consultative Council is entirely appointed.
Only a small percentage of the country’s population is permitted to vote or hold office. The government does not permit the existence of political parties.
Critics continue to complain of a lack of transparency in government procurement. However, Qatar was ranked 19 out of 178 countries surveyed in Transparency International’s 2010 Corruption Perceptions Index, making it the best performer in the Middle East.
Although the constitution guarantees freedom of expression, both print and broadcast media content are influenced by leading families. In 2009, the director of the Doha Center for Media Freedom, Robert Ménard, resigned under alleged government pressure. Journalists practice a high degree of self-censorship and face possible jail sentences for slander. The top five daily newspapers are privately owned, but their owners and boards include members of the ruling family. Although the satellite television channel Al-Jazeera is privately held, the government has reportedly paid for the channel’s operating costs since its inception. As a result, Al-Jazeera rarely criticizes the ruling family. Qataris have access to the internet, but the government censors content and blocks access to sites that are deemed pornographic or politically sensitive.
Islam is Qatar’s official religion. Nevertheless, the 2004 constitution explicitly provides for freedom of worship. The Ministry of Islamic Affairs regulates clerical matters and the construction of mosques. The first two churches to be built for Qatar’s Christian community were opened in Doha in 2008 and 2009, while another three remained in the planning or construction phase in 2010. The constitution guarantees freedom of opinion and academic research, but scholars often practice self-censorship on politically sensitive topics.
While the constitution grants freedom of assembly and the right to form nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), these rights are limited in practice. Protests are rare, with the government restricting the public’s ability to organize demonstrations. All NGOs need state permission to operate, and the government closely monitors the activities of these groups. After hosting the 2007 Conference on Democracy and Reform in Doha, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs established the Arab Foundation for Democracy to monitor progress on reform in the region. Sheikh Hamad has contributed $10 million to the foundation. There are no independent human rights organizations, but a National Human Rights Committee (NHRC), consisting of members of civil society and government ministries, has done some work on investigating alleged abuses.
A 2005 labor law expanded some protections for citizens, but it prohibits noncitizen workers from forming labor unions. Foreign nationals make up most of the workforce, butfear of job loss and deportation often prevents them from exercising what few rights they have. Many foreign workers face economic abuses like the withholding of salaries or contract manipulation, while others endure poor living conditions and excessive work hours. Worker complaints have included charges as serious as torture, imprisonment, and forced labor. Foreign construction workers have repeatedly demonstrated against poor living and working conditions. In September 2010, the Qatari government deported 89 Nepalese construction workers for protesting against their employer’s refusal to increase salaries. Female domestic servants are particularly vulnerable to abuse and are often lured or forced into prostitution.
Despite constitutional guarantees, the judiciary is not independent in practice. The majority of Qatar’s judges are foreign nationals who are appointed and removed by the emir. The judicial system consists of Sharia (Islamic law) courts, which have jurisdiction over a narrow range of issues including family law, and civil law courts, which have jurisdiction over criminal cases as well as commercial and civil suits. The Supreme Judiciary Council regulates the judiciary.The constitution protects individuals from arbitrary arrest and detention and bans torture. However, a 2002 law allows the suspension of these guarantees for the “protection of society.” The law empowers the minister of the interior to detain a defendant for crimes related to national security on the recommendation of the director-general of public security.
The government discriminates against noncitizens in education, housing, healthcare, and other services that are offered free of charge to citizens. The U.S. State Department’s 2010 Trafficking in Persons Report placed Qatar on the Tier 2 Watch List, noting that the country remains a transit point and destination for the trafficking of men and women, particularly for forced labor and prostitution. Qatarhas attempted to restrict visas for suspected prostitutes trying to enter the country, but enforcement remains inconsistent.
The constitution treats women as full and equal persons, and discrimination based on sex, country oforigin, language, or religion is banned. In March 2010, Qatar swore in Sheikha Maha Mansour Salman Jassim al-Thani as its first woman judge. In 2006, Qatar implemented a codified family law, which regulates issues important for women, including inheritance, child custody, marriage, and divorce. While this law offers more protections for women than they enjoyed previously, they continue to face some disadvantages, including societal discrimination, andfew effectivelegal mechanisms are available for them to contest incidents of bias. Five women resigned from their posts at Al-Jazeera in June 2010 after they came under criticism from the television station’s management for failing to dress conservatively enough.